Understanding Tuberculosis – Tuberculosis is an infectious disease of the respiratory tract caused by bacteria. This bacterium is a very strong bacillus bacteria that require a long time to treat it. These bacteria more often infect the lung organ (90%) than other parts of the human body.

Tuberculosis is a contagious disease that is still the world’s attention. Until now, no country is free of tuberculosis. Mortality and morbidity due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria are also high.


Diagnosis of Tuberculosis

Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) disease in adults, generally cause symptoms of a cough that can last more than 2-3 weeks, phlegm and can bleed. Other symptoms that also accompany the missing fever arise, often night sweats and weight loss.

Symptoms of Tuberculosis

Patients affected by the bacilli usually will experience a fever but not too high that lasts long, usually felt at night accompanied by night sweats. Sometimes fever attacks such as influenza and disappear are present. Other symptoms, decreased appetite and weight, cough for more than 3 weeks (can be accompanied by blood), malaise, and weakness.

To anticipate this disease early, following the symptoms of tuberculosis disease you need to know.

The main symptoms

A persistent cough and phlegm for three weeks or more.

Additional symptoms are common

  • Sputum mixed with blood/coughing blood
  • Shortness of breath and pain in the chest
  • Fever over the course of a month
  • Sweating at night without any obvious cause
  • The body is weak and lethargic
  • Appetite decreases and weight loss occurs

It’s easiest to know someone is exposed to tuberculosis if he sweats at night without any obvious cause. Although it can not be directly established tuberculosis because it must be diagnosed, it’s one of the signs. If you are weak, the cough does not stop, chest pain, and sweat at night, immediately consult a doctor immediately.

According to him, to make sure someone is exposed to tuberculosis or not, the medical team made a diagnosis by performing a direct microscopic sputum examination (BTA) and a logical radio picture (X-ray).

Treatment of Tuberculosis

To diagnose tuberculosis, the doctor will perform a physical examination, especially in the lung/chest area, and may request additional examination of chest x-rays, laboratory tests for sputum and blood, as well as tuberculin test (Mantoux / PPD). Treatment of tuberculosis is a long-term treatment, usually for 6-9 months with at least 3 different medications.

This condition requires diligence and discipline of the patient to take medicine and control to the doctor to recover completely. Moreover, usually after 2-3 weeks of taking the drug, the symptoms of tuberculosis will be lost so that patients become lazy to take medicine and control to the doctor.

If tuberculosis treatment is incomplete, then this can be dangerous because often the drugs commonly used for tuberculosis do not work in tuberculosis (resistant) germs. As a result, should be treated with other drugs that are more expensive and “hard.” This should be avoided with tuberculosis treatment thoroughly.

Long-term treatment for tuberculosis that must be lived cause side effects for patients. The usual side effects of tuberculosis treatment are abdominal pain, impaired vision, urine such as coffee, high fever, vomiting, itching, and redness of the skin, burning of the feet/hands, weakness, and eyes / yellow skin.

That is why it is important always to convey the side effects that arise to the doctor each time the control so that doctors can adjust the dose, change the medicine with another, or do a laboratory examination if necessary.

Treatment for other diseases during tuberculosis treatment should also be arranged by a doctor to prevent more serious/dangerous side effects. Tuberculosis can be prevented by:

  • Reduced contact with patients with active tuberculosis.
  • Provision of BCG vaccine (to prevent more severe cases of tuberculosis). This vaccine is routinely given to all toddlers.
  • Keep in mind that those who have been exposed to tuberculosis and treated, can return to the same disease if not prevent it and maintain good health.

Cause of Tuberculosis

This disease is caused by infection of bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis that can attack the lungs, or other organs such as lymph nodes, intestines, kidneys, uterus, bone, until the brain. Tuberculosis can lead to death and is one of the infectious diseases that cause the highest deaths in the country.

This time it is discussed is pulmonary tuberculosis. Tuberculosis is highly contagious, i.e., through the fluid in the airway that comes out into the air through coughing/sneezing and inhaled by people around it. Not everyone who breathes air containing tuberculosis germs will get sick.

In people who have a healthy body because of their high body resistance and good nutrition, the disease will not appear, and the tuberculosis germs will “fall asleep.” However, in those who are malnourished, poorly defended, or constantly inhaling air containing tuberculosis due to bad environments, it is more likely to become infected with tuberculosis (to ‘active tuberculosis’), or it may lead to tuberculosis “falling asleep” in the body can be active again.

The most frequent tuberculosis infections, namely the lungs, often appear without any typical symptoms, such as mild coughing that is often ignored and left untreated. In fact, people with pulmonary tuberculosis can easily transmit tuberculosis germs to other people, and tuberculosis germs continue to damage lung tissue until it presents distinctive symptoms when the disease is severe enough.

Prevention of Tuberculosis

How to prevent tuberculosis disease can be done starting from maintaining health and apply a healthy lifestyle. The dirty and unhealthy environment is a hotbed of the development of bacteria and bacteria bacteria bacteria which is one of the developments of bacteria that cause tuberculosis. Here’s how prevention can be done against tuberculosis:

  • Keep your health, the use of a mask is very good to prevent transmission of tuberculosis. By washing your feet and hands regularly can reduce the risk of transmission of tuberculosis.
  • Avoid living in one house with a person suffering from active tuberculosis but not yet treated for him.
  • Regular and regular exercise is very good for preventing transmission of tuberculosis. With regular exercise can boost the immune system, so bacteria are not easy to attack your body.
  • Enough rest. As much as possible to get enough rest, especially for your hard working. Because with enough sleep and rest can provide strength and health in your body, so it is not easy to get a virus or bacteria tuberculosis disease.
  • Keep your lung organ health by avoiding cigarettes and alcoholic beverages. For those of you, active smokers may immediately quit smoking if you do not want to suffer from tuberculosis and if you smoke passively avoid as much as possible people or a surrounding environment filled with cigarette smoke. In addition to cigarettes avoid alcoholic beverages because it is not good for health and can damage your lung organ.
  • If you go outdoors use a mask to reduce the risk of airborne tuberculosis transmission.


In addition to tips on prevention tips above, for those of you who have been infected with tuberculosis disease you can do some of the following tips to help the treatment you do to be more leverage, the following tips for tuberculosis patients:

  • Stop smoking, the content of harmful substances contained in cigarettes can worsen the health of your lungs. See Also: The Dangers of Smoking for Body Health
  • Avoid alcoholic beverages, alcohol can damage liver function so that drugs used to treat tuberculosis disease to be ineffective.
  • Stop consuming caffeinated beverages, caffeine can have a bad impact on the body during the treatment process.
  • Avoid consuming fatty foods such as red meat and poultry.
  • Eat foods that contain tall omega-3 fatty acids such as tuna, salmon, mackerel as they can help boost your immune system.
  • Eat vegetable foods such as broccoli, spinach, peanuts, and some other vegetables that can boost your immune system.

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