PROSTATE CANCER DISEASE DEFINITION, PREVENTION, AND TREATMENT

PROSTATE CANCER DISEASE DEFINITION, PREVENTION, AND TREATMENT

Understanding Prostate Cancer Disease – Prostate cancer is the uncontrolled growth of cells in the prostate gland. The prostate is a small gland in the male pelvis that is part of the reproductive system. The prostate is under the bladder in front of the rectum. The prostate gland circulates the urethra, Channels that carry urine from the bladder to the penile tract. WHO data show, prostate cancer is the second most common cancer cases in men. It is estimated that around 1.1 million men worldwide are diagnosed with prostate cancer, and there are 307 thousand deaths by 2012.

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Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer Disease

There are several tests and also examinations that must be undertaken to diagnose prostate cancer, namely:

Anal rectal examination

If your doctor finds abnormalities in the texture, shape, or size of your prostate gland, you may need other advanced tests.

 

PSA test (prostate-specific antigen or prostate-specific antigen)

The prostate gland produces a protein called the PSA. PSA levels in the blood of all men are quite small, but PSA levels will increase with the age of a man.

PSA blood test serves to measure PSA levels in the blood. The PSA test is not specific for detecting prostate cancer because other conditions such as inflammation of the prostate also cause an increase in PSA in the blood. Also, some patients with prostate cancer did not experience increased levels of PSA. Only about 45% of patients with prostate cancer have high levels of PSA.

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Transrectal ultrasound test (TRUS)

In this test, a small appliance will be lubricated and placed on the patient’s anus. This small device will emit sound waves on the prostate and record the echoes of the sound waves. The echo will be processed so that it becomes the patient’s prostate image.

Biopsy

The biopsy procedure is prostate tissue sampling to investigate further whether there are cancer cells. This is the most reliable step in diagnosing prostate cancer.

In addition to the above procedures, doctors may also perform imaging tests (bone detector, CT scan, and MRI) to evaluate the spread of cancer cells in other organs.

Patients may be suspected of having prostate cancer if the results indicate the presence of ASAP (Atypical small acinar proliferation) in prostate cells. ASAP is a condition in which prostate cells are suspected to develop into cancer when examined with a microscope.

Patients may also be suspected of prostate cancer if prostate cell examination results indicate PIA (Proliferative inflammatory atrophy). PIA is a condition in which prostate cells look smaller than normal size, and there are signs of inflammation in the prostate area.

Stages of Prostate Cancer

To determine the proper way of handling prostate cancer, doctors need to know at what stage of cancer suffering. Thus, the right treatment can be given. Here is the stage of prostate cancer:

  • Stage I. At this stage, the cancer is still very small and has not spread beyond the prostate gland.
  • Stage II. At this stage, the cancer is larger and has not spread beyond the prostate gland.
  • Stage III. Cancer has spread beyond the prostate gland but is still in the surrounding tissue, such as the urethra.
  • Stage IV. Cancer has spread further, for example into the bladder, rectum, or bone.

Symptoms  of Illness Prostate Cancer

There are ways to recognize the symptoms of prostate cancer. Let’s look at the following signs:

  • Difficult to urinate

It can be a feeling of wanting to urinate, but nothing comes out, stops while urinating, there is a feeling of still wanting to urinate or having to go to the toilet often to urinate because it comes out a little bit. This symptom is due to an enlarged prostate gland that is in the urinary tract because there is a tumor in it thus interfere with the urination process. The prostate gland gets bigger as one gets older. Therefore, check yourself to the doctor to distinguish whether only enlarged prostate or cancer.

  • Pain during urination

This problem is also due to a prostate tumor that suppresses the urinary tract. However, this pain can also be a symptom of a prostate infection called prostatitis.

  • Exit the blood while urinating

These symptoms are rare but do not ignore them. Immediately check with the doctor even if the blood is released only slightly, vaguely or just pink.

  • Difficult erection or holding an erection
  • Blood on the sperm
  • Difficult defecation and there are other digestive tract problems

The prostate gland is located beneath the bladder and in front of the rectum. As a result, if there is a digestive tumor will be disrupted. But keep in mind, it is difficult CHAPTER that continually occurs can also cause prostate enlargement due to pressure on the land continuously. Difficult bowel and gastrointestinal disorders can also indicate colon cancer.

  • Continuous pain in the lower back, pelvis or thighs in the upper part

Often, prostate cancer spreads in this area, namely the lower back, pelvis, and hip so that often the occurrence of pain that is difficult to explain.

  • Frequent urination at night
  • Urine that drips or is not strong enough

This symptom resembles urinary incontinence (wetting). Urine cannot be retained until it gently exits and drips.

  • Age above 50 and have risk factors

Because it does not cause symptoms, men who have risk factors should check regularly. These risk factors include the presence of family members suffering from cancer especially if it’s the father, obesity/obesity and smoking is one of the risk factors for prostate cancer.

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Treatment of Disease Prostate Cancer

Treatment depends on several factors:

  • Stage of cancer
  • The size of cancer
  • Age and life expectancy of the patient
  • How extensive the spread of cancer has occurred
  • Patient health condition

Here are some of the recommended ways to treat prostate cancer:

Prostate Cancer Surgery

Here are some ways and also surgical procedures that can be done to overcome prostate cancer.

TURP or trans-urethral resection

TURP is a surgical procedure in cutting parts of the prostate gland. TURP is done using general anesthesia or spinal anesthesia, so you do not feel pain during surgery. The goal of surgery is to relieve or eliminate symptoms of urination that is disrupted due to prostate cancer.

The surgeon will insert an iron wire with a circular section at the end of the urethra toward the prostate. Electric current is used to heat a circular section that serves to cut prostate cancer.

Radical prostatectomy

Radical prostatectomy is an operating procedure to remove the prostate gland and surrounding tissue. There is a possibility the cancer cells will return postoperatively.

Some potential complications of radical prostatectomy procedures are:

  • Inability to control when urinating.
  • Erectile dysfunction. Better known as impotence. Inability to achieve and maintain an erection.
  • Cannot ejaculate so cannot have children through intercourse.

Cryotherapy

Cryotherapy is sometimes done to deal with early-stage prostate cancer. However, most doctors will not choose this treatment as a first step treatment.

Some of the side effects of this action are:

  • Most patients will have blood mixed in the urine for a day to two days after the action of cryotherapy.
  • Cryotherapy affects the anus and bladder, which makes the appearance of pain, tenderness, and frequent urge to urinate.
  • Erectile dysfunction or impotence, because cryotherapy risk of damaging the nerves around the prostate that controls erections.
  • Difficulty controlling urination.

Radiotherapy

Radiotherapy uses radiation energy to kill cancer cells in cases where of cancer has not spread beyond the prostate. Radiotherapy can also be used after surgery to kill the remaining cancer cells. Also, radiotherapy is also done to relieve symptoms or pain and slow the rate of cancer development in advanced cancer cases.

Patients do not need to undergo hospitalization for radiotherapy procedures. Here are some of the side effects of radiotherapy on prostate cancer:

  • Pubic hair fall out
  • Feeling tired
  • Feeling uncomfortable around the anus and rectum
  • Inflammation of the bladder
  • Inability to erect
  • Urinary incontinence
  • Problems with defecation, such as diarrhea bleeding

Chemotherapy

In this treatment step, the patient will be prescribed anti-cancer drugs by the doctor. This action is very appropriate if of cancer has spread to organs outside the prostate gland. Some of the side effects of chemotherapy are:

  • Hair loss.
  • Sprue.
  • Nausea and vomiting.
  • Diarrhea.
  • Increased risk of infection, due to the reduced number of white blood cells.
  • Easily bruised or bleeding.
  • Fatigue.

Hormone Therapy

Hormone therapy is usually combined with radiotherapy procedures. Hormone therapy performed before radiotherapy aims to improve treatment success. While hormone therapy given after radiotherapy is intended to reduce the likelihood of the return of cancer cells.

In addition to the above functions, hormone therapy can also be used to slow the development of end-stage prostate cancer and relieve symptoms or pain that appears.

Side effects of hormone therapy in prostate cancer are:

  • Loss of sexual passion
  • Erectile dysfunction or impotence
  • Weight gain
  • Swelling of the chest
  • Hot flush or a condition in which the body suddenly feels too hot to cause excessive sweating and body shivering.
  • Sweating

Steroid tablets can be used if hormone therapy is no longer successful because cancer is resistant to hormones. Steroids can be used to shrink tumors and inhibit tumor growth.

Cancer Vaccination

Doctors can provide cancer vaccine for people with prostate cancer. This cancer vaccine works by encouraging the immune system to attack prostate cancer cells.

Cancer vaccine for each patient can vary because the vaccine is based on the patient’s white blood cells. However, this vaccine is not consumed to prevent cancer developing, but extend the life of patients several months.

Treatment of bone

If prostate cancer spreads to other body parts, it will most likely spread to the bone first. Spread to the bone will make the patient feel pain, bone fractures, or high calcium levels in the blood.

This action aims to prevent or slow the spread of cancer to the bone. There are several steps that doctors usually do for treatment procedures on the bone, namely:

  • Provide drugs such as bisphosphonates and denosumab, to inhibit the spread of cancer.
  • Administering corticosteroids or painkillers to relieve bone pain.
  • External radiation therapy serves to relieve pain in the bone.
  • Radioactive drugs. It is a drug that contains radioactive elements that serve to kill cancer cells.

Treating End-Stage Cancer

If prostate cancer has entered the final stage, then this condition can no longer be cured. Treatment is performed only to slow down progression, prolong life, and relieve symptoms.

To treat end-stage prostate cancer, a treatment that can be done is radiotherapy, hormone therapy, chemotherapy.

Cause of Disease Prostate Cancer

Prostate cancer is caused by changes in normal prostate cell DNA. However, prostate cancer affects mainly elderly men. About eight out of ten cases suffered by men aged over 65 years.

In addition to age, here are some factors that can increase the risk of prostate cancer:

  • Family health history. If there is a family of men who suffer from prostate cancer or women suffering from breast cancer, your risk for prostate cancer will increase.
  • Food. Eating foods that contain too high calcium can also increase the risk of prostate cancer.
  • Obesity. Being overweight increases a man’s risk of getting prostate cancer.
  • Race. Prostate cancer is more risky to men from men of African-American and Caribbean races.
  • Gene changes. Some inherited gene changes can increase the risk of prostate cancer.
  • Men who often eat red meat or high-fat dairy products will have a slightly higher risk of prostate cancer than men who consume only a few foods.
  • Some studies suggest that prostate inflammation is associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer.
  • Smoke.
  • Sexually transmitted diseases, such as gonorrhea or chlamydia, may increase the risk of catching type cancer
  • Vasectomy. Men who undergo vasectomy procedures have a higher risk of prostate cancer.

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Prevention of Disease Prostate Cancer

Prevent the occurrence of prostate cancer:

  1. Expand water

Water is very important and crucial for the body. The benefits are not just for the prostate organ alone, but other body parts. By consuming a lot of water, will facilitate the disposal and channel channels that exist in the body smoothly. The urine drainage is also clean, the kidneys become healthy, the skin becomes moist. Usually, people who drink enough urine color is clear white. Whitewater intake required by the body between 6 to 8 glasses.

  1. Drink pomegranate juice

Pomegranate has a useful enough usefulness to the body. Even this juice can be useful to reduce the risk and level of PSA in men. Intake is in need is as much as 8 glasses per day.

  1. Expand to eat vegetables and fruits

Green vegetables can reduce the risk of prostate cancer. The content of food substances such as fructose and lycopene in tomatoes is useful to suppress and reduce the risk of prostate cancer. Even if you already have prostate cancer, the contents of these two substances can help shrink the size of the prostate tumor.

Type of foods such as broccoli, cauliflower, apples, berries, melons, and watermelons.

  1. Enrich with Zinc-rich foods

Zinc-containing foods help reduce enlargement of the prostate. This is in because the glands present in the prostate require more zinc than other organs. These substances can alter the metabolism of steroid hormone, which is able to reduce prostate splinting. Some examples of foods that have a rich content of zinc are wheat germ and pumpkin seeds.

  1. Consumption of foods rich in vitamin D

Foods that contain vitamin D nutrients will help prostate health. Some foods rich in vitamin D are almonds, pumpkin seeds, Swiss slices, mustard greens, spinach, vegetable oils, hazelnuts, avocados, and broccoli.

  1. Eat foods rich in vitamin E

The growth of cancer cells tends to be fast. After small cancer can do chemotherapy to destroy it. One of the substances that can help slow cancer is vitamin E. Inside each vitamin E contain anti-oxidant substances that can slow down and reduce the risk of all types of cancer.

 

  1. Using herbal medicines

Medicinal herbs can also help reduce the enlargement of prostate cancer. Some species are palmetto which has a usefulness to inhibit DHT and lower levels of estrogen in the body.

  1. Reduce foods containing cholesterol

Foods that contain cholesterol in the male body will be converted to testosterone. When prostate tissue is enlarged, the cholesterol content in it very much. It is recommended to reduce foods containing cholesterol and high fat.

  1. Reduce foods that contain fat

Fats that enter into the class of bad fats or commonly called HDL fat can develop into cholesterol. Though already mentioned that in the body of a man, cholesterol can turn into testosterone. For that reduce consumption of fat, especially animal fat because the level of the content is very high. Some foods that contain high fat are fresh red meat, fish, and chicken.

  1. Stop consuming alcohol

According to a recent study, alcohol can increase the irritation of the bladder. This will further aggravate your situation if already in the verdict exposed to prostate enlargement, as disclosed by Dr. Block. Alcohol is medically able to weaken the muscles of the body muscles. So make the urine in the body stuck and not immediately removed.

  1. Routine exercise

Healthy and saving tricks you can do is a time to exercise for at least one week 2 times. By doing this, it can alleviate the risk of prostate cancer. Many doctors say that men who have a healthy and fit body have less risk of prostate cancer.