Understanding PCOS – Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is a syndrome or a collection of several symptoms that attack the ovaries and the process of ovum release (ovulation). Patients with PCOS have three things that happen that many cysts in the ovaries, higher levels of male hormones, and irregular menstrual cycles.

Many cysts that arise in the ovary are actually follicles that contain immature eggs. The egg cells never mature so as not to stimulate ovulation.

Patients with PCOS experience hormonal imbalances in the body because they have higher levels of male hormones than normal. This causes the sufferer not to menstruate and difficult to get pregnant or infertility. Patients with PCOS have a greater risk of preterm delivery, miscarriage, hypertension, and gestational diabetes.

PCOS usually affects women who are fertile (15-44 years). Almost 70% of all who have this disease are undiagnosed. In the long run, PCOS can cause health problems like diabetes, heart disease, stroke, endometrial cancer, and depression.

Polycystic ovary syndrome

Diagnosis of PCOS

The doctor will diagnose Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) if there are two of the three PCOS problems, i.e., many ovarian cysts, higher male hormone levels, and irregular menstrual cycles. Other symptoms that will also be asked include acne, hair growth, and weight gain.

Blood tests are needed to determine the levels of male hormones, insulin, and cholesterol. While ultrasound examination is intended to look for abnormal follicles in the ovaries.


Symptoms of PCOS

Some people with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) will be aware of symptoms since the first menstrual cycle. Other patients may not realize when their weight increases a lot or they are difficult to get pregnant.

Here are some common symptoms of PCOS:

  • Irregular menstrual cycle
  • Heavy menstruation or heavy bleeding
  • Hair or hair growth on the face, back, abdomen, and chest
  • Acne on the face, chest, and upper back
  • Weight gain to obesity
  • Baldness
  • Blackened skin on body folds such as neck, groin, and under the breast
  • Headache
  • It’s hard to get pregnant

Treatment of PCOS

Treatment of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) usually begins with lifestyle changes including weight loss, healthy diet, and exercise. By lowering 5- 10% weight, it can make menstrual cycles more regular, decrease insulin, and the risk of diabetes and heart disease.

The use of birth control pills can make the body’s hormones to be balanced. This will stimulate ovulation, relieve symptoms such as excess hair growth, and protect the body from endometrial cancer.

The use of metformin, diabetes drugs can improve insulin levels so treat PCOS. Fertility drugs clomiphene can help PCOS sufferers to get pregnant, but the risk of getting twins increases.

Surgery can be an option if other treatments do not work. The procedure of ovarian drilling is to make some small holes in the ovary by using a laser or hot thin needle to restore the normal function of ovulation.

Cause of PCOS

The exact cause of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome is still unknown. Some of the possible causes for PCOS are:

  • PCOS disease occurs within the family. Many genes affect this condition.
  • Insulin resistance. Almost 70% of PCOS suffer from insulin resistance. This makes the body try to produce more insulin. As a result of the ovaries also produce more male hormones. Obese people usually also have insulin resistance.
  • Patients with PCOS usually have high levels of inflammation. Inflammation also makes the production of male hormones increased. This condition prevents the ovaries from making hormones and producing eggs normally.

Polycystic ovary syndrome