Understanding Ovarian cancer Disease – Ovarian cancer is cancer that grows and develops in the ovaries or ovaries, two organs located on the right and left the side of the uterus. This cancer can occur in middle-aged women and women who have advanced.

Ovarian cancer causes

There are three main types of ovarian cancer, namely:

  • Epithelial cell cancer. Epithelial cells include the outer layer of the ovary. Eighty-five percent of ovarian cancer cases are of this type.
  • Germ cell cancer. Germ cells are cells in the ovaries that can develop into eggs. This type of cancer is common in young women. This type of ovarian cancer has a fairly high recovery rate.
  • Stromal cell cancer. Stromal cell cancer occurs in connective tissue that makes up the inside of the ovary. This type of cancer also has a high cure rate.

Ovarian cancer has four stages:

  • Stage I. Cancer can be found on the ovary surface.
  • Stage II. Cancer involves 1/2 parts of the ovary that can extend to the pelvis (uterus, fallopian tubes, bladder, colon).
  • Stage III. Cancer spreads beyond the pelvic cavity to the abdominal wall, abdominal organs, small intestine, lymph nodes, and liver surfaces.
  • Stage IV. The last phase of ovarian cancer. Cancer has spread to distant organs – like the spleen, lungs, liver (inside).

Ovariun cancer


Ovarian complications (ovarian cancer) that can occur is the spread to various organs of the body.  To know cancer has spread required imaging examination.

Diagnosis of Ovarian cancer Disease

The diagnosis of ovarian cancer is obtained after the doctor collects information, physical examination, and investigation. Information gathering usually includes family health history and symptoms of suspected signs of ovarian cancer

Blood tests, ultrasound examinations (ultrasound), and biopsy can help clarify the picture of the disease. The ultrasonography examination your doctor will recommend is covering the abdomen and the area around the sex organs.

Positive examination results of ovarian cancer usually followed by follow-up examination. Follow-up examinations such as colonoscopy, CT scan, MRI, and chest x-rays are necessary to determine the stage and development of cancer.

Symptoms of Illness Ovarian cancer

Ovarian cancer symptoms (early ovarian cancer) are often not very clear at first. As many as 60% of women diagnosed with ovarian cancer have entered the advanced stage of the disease.

It is generally rare to find early symptoms of this cancer-even if it is usually vague. These symptoms include swelling of the abdomen, always feeling bloated, pelvic pain, fatigue, weight loss, constipation (constipation), and irregular menstrual bleeding.

There are some other signs that you should also suspect. For example back pain for no apparent reason, anorexia, and the occurrence of bleeding in the intimate organs (vagina) when not menstruating.

Ovarian Cancer

Treatment of Disease Ovarian cancer

Treatment of ovarian cancer (ovarian cancer) is highly dependent on the stage of cancer, disease type, choice therapy, and body condition.

  • Atypical ovarian cancer. Atypical cancer has different properties than other types of malignant ovarian cancers. Commonly present in women aged 40 years (malignancy at the age of 60 years). About 20% of early stages can spread to the stomach and require surgical therapy. Patients with early-stage ovarian cancer who still want to preserve their fertility can do unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, This is a surgical removal procedure of the ovaries that contain cancer.
  • Early stages. The early stages of ovarian cancer are stage I and II. Therapy that can be done at this stage is surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation.
  • Advanced stage. This stadium always requires optimal surgery therapy followed by chemotherapy after surgery. The goal is to improve survival of the sufferer. Radiation throughout the abdomen can be an alternative to chemotherapy.
  • Recurrent ovarian cancer. Recurrent ovarian cancer patients require a second surgery with chemotherapy using different agents. Hormonal therapy can also be used. Therapies that are still in research are stem cell therapy, immunotherapy using interferon, and genetic therapy.

Cause of Disease Ovarian cancer

The cause of ovarian cancer (ovarian cancer) to date is still being investigated. But several theories explain the mechanism of the occurrence of ovarian cancer.

The first theory explains the ongoing minor trauma during the ovulation cycle (the cycle of egg expenditure every month). The second theory explains the ovarian exposure to gonadotropin hormones that can increase the risk of malignancy.

Next is the third theory. This theory explains the contact of carcinogens in the ovaries through the reproductive tract. A carcinogen is a substance that can stimulate the growth of cancer cell malignancy.

Some of the factors associated with an increased risk of ovarian cancer are:

  • Individual risk factors. New 40-year-old women who only have children 1 or no children, a history of breast cancer or endometrial cancer may increase the risk of ovarian cancer.
  • Family history. Women who have a family history there are affected by breast cancer, ovaries, endometrium, or colon also have an increased risk for ovarian cancer.
  • Environmental factor. Some research suggests that the intake of foods containing animal fats such as red meat and chicken in large quantities can increase the risk of getting ovarian cancer.

Prevention of Disease Ovarian cancer

You can do some of the following tips as a preventive measure of ovarian cancer:

  • Have more than 1 child, use pill contraception at least 1, tubal ligation, and hysterectomy (removal of the uterus).
  • Consume vegetables, vitamin A, and vitamin C in sufficient quantities.
  • Perform periodic checks. Routine pelvic examination per year can be used to detect early ovarian cancer that has no high sensitivity.