Understanding Migraine Disease – A migraine is a headache that feels like a pulsating with a moderate to severe level. Usually only attack one side of the head only.According to WHO data in 2016, adults who have headache disorders account for 50 percent of the world’s total population. By 2015, half to three-quarters of the world’s 18-65-year-old population is suffering from headaches, and 30 percent of them are migraines. Generally, migraine suffered by women. Without treatment, usually, migraine can last for 4 hours. However, severe migraine may last up to a week. The frequency of emergency is different for each patient. But on average, migraine appears 2-4 times a month. In some cases, migraines may appear every few days.

Types of A migraine

Usually, migraine is diagnosed through a consultation session with a doctor. The information that your doctor gets from you can be used to identify patterns of headaches that match the symptoms of a migraine. Generally, migraines cause symptoms of nausea, vomiting, and more sensitive to light, sound, and aroma. The term for symptoms that indicate migraine will appear is an aura.

There are several types of migraines, including:

  • A migraine with aura. Usually, a sign that appears before a migraine is like seeing a flash of light or a ringing ear
  • A migraine without aura. A migraine appears asymptomatic.
  • Migraine aura without a headache. Patients feel the aura, but without accompanied a migraine

headache types

Diagnosis of Migraine Disease

To get the appropriate treatment, you need an accurate diagnosis. A migraine is generally diagnosed by looking at headache patterns that match the symptoms of a migraine.

First of all, the doctor will ask about the history of headaches that you feel. Describe the symptoms and characteristics of the pain you are experiencing with detail.

It’s good you also have a special record of migraine attacks ever experienced. Tell your doctor about the location of headaches, symptoms you feel, headache duration, headache time, headache frequency, severe headache, 1-10 scale.

Also, also inform what foods you consume before headaches appear and any type of treatment that you may or may not have done. For women, telling the menstrual cycle can also help doctors in diagnosing.

Afterwards, the doctor will perform a physical examination such as checking eyesight, coordination among members of the body, reflexes and check the condition of the sense of touch. The examination will help to eliminate the possibility of headaches associated with other diseases.

Some questions your doctor may ask about headaches that you feel:

  • Is a headache felt only on one side of the head only?
  • Are the headaches you feel in the form of a throbbing pain?
  • Is it difficult for you to move?
  • Does a headache worsen as you do physical activity?
  • Is it accompanied by other symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, and sensitivity to light and sound?

If needed, the doctor will suggest a neurological examination. This is meant to eliminate the possibility of you suffering from a neurological disease that can affect the brain and can cause the emergence of a migraine.

Symptoms  of Illness Migraine

The main symptoms of a migraine are generally a pulsating headache that feels on one side of the head. Usually, the pain worsens if the body moves so that it blocks the person on normal activity. In certain cases, the pain appears on both sides of the head, face, and neck.


The symptoms experienced by migraine sufferers may vary. However, in general, there are five phases of migraine symptoms, namely:


Symptoms of a migraine, Fatigue and stiff muscles are also commonly felt in this phase. There is also a desire for certain foods, constipation, or often yawning.


Usually a visual disturbance. Some sufferers experience flashes of light at a blurred view, colorful light, or even loss of half vision (hemianopsia). Aura is a symptom of the nervous system.


Migraine pain usually appears on only one side of the head. However, this throbbing pain may also appear on both sides of the head. In this phase, most sufferers feel nausea even vomiting. During a migraine attack, you can become sensitive to light and sound. Without treatment, this phase can last 4-72 hours.


The pain subsided, but the accompanying symptoms persisted. It took a while to get lost completely.

Companion Symptoms 

Other symptoms that usually accompany a migraine include excessive sweating, cannot concentrate, feel very hot or very cold, abdominal pain, and diarrhea. However, not all patients experience these symptoms. These symptoms also do not always appear simultaneously. In fact, in some cases, people may experience symptoms without headaches.

Each one of three migraine sufferers develops symptoms that appear before the migraine attacks. These symptoms are known as auras, which consist of:

  • Visual problems, such as looking at zig-zag patterns in vision
  • Numbness or tingling, starting from one side of the hand and spread to the face
  • Losing balance or dizziness
  • Having difficulty speaking
  • Fainting, but this rarely happens

The duration of the aura is about five minutes to an hour. The appearance of the aura can be accompanied by headaches or not at all.

Treatment of Disease Migraine

A migraine cannot be cured. However, the frequency and pain can be controlled to be less frequent and lighter. Handling is different for each patient.

Treatment options depend on frequency, severity, and general health conditions. It also includes special conditions such as pregnant and lactating women.

Each patient has a different preference for dealing with migraines. You may feel greatly helped by sleeping or lying in a dark room. But there are also looking for comfort by way of eating something.

Usually, migraine sufferers take drugs to relieve pain and relieve nausea. But you should consult with your doctor before taking any medication.

Pain relief medication 

Many migraine sufferers are helped by over-the-counter painkillers such as paracetamol, ibuprofen, and aspirin. The right time to take painkillers is when the onset of a migraine strikes. Because the drug takes time to dissolve in the blood and relieve symptoms.

It is not advisable to take the drug when the pain is protracted because the effect will not be too noticeable. Disease-mediated painkillers are an alternative medicine you can try. These drugs will more quickly seep into the bloodstream. But remember, aspirin and ibuprofen are not recommended for patients under the age of 16 and you who have stomach problems such as ulcers.

Consult your doctor if you do not feel symptoms improve. The doctor may give the drug in higher doses or recommend painkillers combined with triptans and anti-nausea medications.


This is a group of drugs that can specifically reduce a migraine. Triptan works by reducing the chemical changes in the brain that cause a migraine. This group of drugs will make the blood vessels narrow, thus blocking the pain signals on the brain nerve.

Because of its function that triptan should not be given if you have a risk of stroke or heart attack. Other side effects of triptans include heat, tingling, nausea, dry mouth, drowsiness, dizziness, and muscle weakness.

Anti-nausea Medication 

In migraine sufferers, anti-nausea drugs can relieve symptoms even if the patient does not feel nauseated or wants to vomit. Same with painkillers, the most effective anti-nausea drug is taken just after a migraine appears. Usually, this drug is in tablet form. Side effects of anti-nausea drugs are usually drowsy and diarrhea.

Treatment for pregnant and lactating women 

In general, treatment of a migraine with drugs should be limited when pregnant or breastfeeding. Should the patient avoid, triggers for a migraine does not recur? If necessary, doctors may administer low-dose pain medications such as paracetamol. However, before taking medication, you should consult your doctor first.


Cause of Disease Migraine

The cause of a migraine is not known for sure. However, the emergence of a migraine is thought to be the effect of abnormal brain activity affecting blood vessels, nerves, and chemicals in the brain. If a person has a history of the same disease in the family, then he has the risk of a migraine attack.

Migraine triggers

Many things are suspected as migraine triggers. For each patient, migraines may be triggered by different causes. So, you should have a special note to identify triggers that consistently cause migraines.Some things that can trigger migraine include:

1.  Hormonal changes

Women are more at risk of a migraine than men. This is due to fluctuations in hormone levels that are closely related to a migraine. Many women experience a migraine during menstruation. Decreased estrogen levels are thought to be the culprit.Many female migraine sufferers feel their disease improves after menopause. However, not a few also feelotherwise.

2.  Self-emotional triggers

Apparently, migraines can be triggered by the emotional state of the sufferer.Example of stress, extreme joy, anxiety, and depression.

3.  Physical triggers

Physical state arising from the pattern of life can also trigger a migraine. Examples of physical triggers are:

  • Fatigue
  • Not getting a good enough break regarding quality and quantity
  • Tension in the neck and shoulders, usually associated with posture
  • Doing unusual heavy physical activity

4.  Triggers diet and groceries

Here are the things that are associated with a diet that can trigger a migraine:

  • Eat irregularly
  • Dehydration
  • Liquor
  • Caffeinated beverages such as tea and coffee
  • Chocolate, cheese, or orange

5.  The triggering factor of the environment

Some environmental factors that can cause a person migraine include:

  • The light is too bright
  • The screen (TV or computer monitor) is blinking
  • Smoking or being in a smoke-filled room
  • Loud-volume sounds
  • Changes in the weather
  • Sharp aroma

6.  Factor of drugs

Taking sleeping pills, contraceptive pills, or taking hormone replacement therapy (which is sometimes done to relieve menopausal symptoms) can lead to migraines.

Prevention of Disease Migraine

Identify your migraine triggers, such as stress or certain foods, to avoid them. This will reduce the risk of migraine relapse.Living a healthy lifestyle by eating a balanced, nutritious diet, regular exercise, and challenging foods or drinks that may trigger a migraine such as caffeine can also minimize the chances of a migraine attack. For women, because migraines are often associated with hormonal changes, you should avoid taking medications that contain estrogen hormones such as birth control pills.

When should migraines be treated seriously?

Consult a physician in case of any of the following:

  • The frequency of migraine symptoms is quite common
  • The severity of the symptoms can no longer be overcome by taking over-the-counter painkillers. Consumption of painkillers should also be as directed. If consumed too much, the body will become immune to it.
  • Migraines appear more than five days a month, although you’ve tried to control them with drugs

You should also be aware that headaches are often the first symptoms of a more serious illness. Examples of diseases in question are – – stroke or inflammation of the brain, especially if the following conditions appear:

  • Difficulty speaking
  • An unbearable headache that had never been experienced before
  • A headache with high fever, stiff neck, confusion, seizures, double vision, and rash
  • The arm or face, partially or completely, is paralyzed or feels weak If you experience any of the above symptoms, see your doctor immediately for quick and proper treatment.

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