KIDNEY STONES DISEASE DEFINITION, PREVENTION, AND TREATMENT

KIDNEY STONES DISEASE DEFINITION, PREVENTION, AND TREATMENT

Understanding Kidney stones Disease – Kidney stone disease or nephrolithiasis is a condition when inside the kidneys formed hard material resembling a stone. This material is formed from the waste of substances in the blood filtered kidney, then settles and gradually crystallizes.

Precipitation usually occurs because you do not consume water as recommended, are taking certain medications, or have medical conditions that can affect the levels of certain compounds in the urine.

By type, kidney stones are divided into four: calcium stones, uric acid stones, struvite stones, and cystine stones. Different types of kidney stones will affect treatment and preventive measures.

Kidney stone disease is quite common in people aged 30-60 years, and can be suffered by both men and women. However, men have a higher risk than women. From research that has been done, it is allegedly associated with male urethral blockage.

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Diagnosis of Kidney stones Disease

In diagnosing kidney stones, initially the doctor will collect information about the symptoms experienced by the patient. The doctor will also ask if there are family members who have the same disease, daily diet, whether the patient is eating something that can trigger the formation of kidney stones.

Then, the doctor will perform a series of examinations, including laboratory tests in the form of urine tests and blood tests. Also, there are also various scans such as ultrasound, x-ray, and intravenous pyelogram (IVP).

Urine testing is needed to check whether an infection has occurred. If urine samples have kidney stones, the doctor will use them to identify the type of kidney stones suffered for proper treatment.

While blood tests are needed to determine whether the kidney is still functioning normally or not, as well as to check the levels of certain substances that potentially lead to the formation of kidney stones.

After that, the doctor will perform the examination through the image image that will help confirm the diagnosis and ensure the position of kidney stones accurately. Types of possible image imagery are CT scan, X-ray, ultrasound scan, and intravenous urogram (IVU) or intravenous pyelogram (IVP).

Today, CT scan is the ultimate checking option in diagnosing kidney stone disease because the results are more accurate than other methods of examination.

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Symptoms  of Illness Kidney stones

Usually, if the size of kidney stones is small, you will not feel any pain, kidney symptoms are divided into four: Kidney stones will come out naturally through the ureter (the channel that connects the kidney to the bladder).

You will feel something new if the size of the stone is larger than the ureter. At the time of urination, the stone will rub against the ureter wall causing irritation or even injury. This is why the urine looks blood. The stone can also clog the ureter or urethra (the final drain ducts urine out of the body), so that urine expenditure is inhibited.

Other Symptoms of kidney stones may include:

  • Lower back pain is prolonged, sometimes felt to the groin. In male patients, the pain is also felt in the testes and scrotum.
  • Side stomach pain with varying duration, ranging from minutes to hours.
  • Restless.
  • Can not lie quietly because it is difficult to find a comfortable position.
  • Nausea.
  • More frequent urination than usual.
  • Pain while urinating.

There is blood in the urine-caused by the friction of kidney stones against the kidneys or ureters. When kidney stones clog the ureters there will be a buildup of bacteria that can cause a kidney infection. Symptoms of a kidney infection are similar to symptoms of kidney stone disease, but usually, the patient will also feel:

  • High fever.
  • Shivering.
  • Fatigue.
  • Diarrhea.
  • The color of the urine is cloudy and smells unsightly.

Treatment of Disease Kidney stones

Treatment of kidney stones depends on the size of the stone. For a small stone size that can still pass through the urinary tract, the doctor will only advise you to consume water as recommended. The hope is that the stone can come out alone along with the release of urine.

If the pain you feel is disturbing enough, your doctor will administer pain medication, such as ibuprofen or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. To relieve symptoms of nausea and vomiting, the doctor will provide antiemetic drugs.

If the kidney stones have moved from kidney to ureter and cause severe pain, you will be referred for hospitalization. Generally, it is performed for patients who have only one kidney, are pregnant, are dehydrated, or are over 60 years of age.

If the size of the kidney stones is too large (diameter of at least 6-7 mm) to be excreted naturally, the doctor will suggest a special therapy to remove it. Kidney stone treatment type depends on the size of a small size and location of kidney stones. The procedures for treating large kidney stones are:

Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL)

    This procedure uses high-frequency sound waves to destroy kidney stones into small pieces. These fragments are expected to be ejected easily naturally. You will feel a little less comfortable and afterward doctors will usually give painkillers. ESWL 99% effective for kidney stones with a maximum diameter of 20 mm.

Ureteroscopy

    The doctor will use a device called a ureteroscope. The tool will be inserted into the ureter to see the location of the blockage. Once the stone location is known, the stone will be destroyed using another device or with the help of a laser. You will be completely anesthetized during this procedure. Ureteroscopy is effective for kidney stones with a maximum diameter of 15 mm.

Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy (PCNL)

This procedure is usually performed if ESWL procedures are not possible, for example, the patient is obese.

Cause

Stones may form if urine contains too many specific chemicals such as calcium, uric acid, cystine, or struvite (a mixture of phosphate, magnesium, and ammonium). Having a very high-protein diet and drinking too little water increases the risk of stones. About 85% of the stones are made of calcium. Uric acid stones occur more often if you also have gout. Struvite stones form more frequently in the infected urine (infection stones).

Prevention

To prevent kidney stones is very simple. You only need to drink enough everyday water foods that contain substances that form kidney stones, such as oxalic substances, calcium supplements, and animal protein. In addition to drinking enough air and exercise intake of certain substances, prevention of kidney stones can also do by taking drugs prescribed by a doctor. This is the first step to prevent relapse for those who have previously suffered from kidney stones.

Kidney stone disease does have a recurring tendency, but prevention is very easy. You should pay attention to two things:

Water consumption according to body needs. If you consume enough water, urine color will look bright.

drink water

Notice the diet. If your kidney stone is a type of calcium stone, then avoid foods that contain lots of oxalates. Oxalates will block the absorption of calcium. However, consult your doctor before changing your diet.