HYPERTENSION DEFINITION, SYMPTOMS, AND TREATMENT

HYPERTENSION DEFINITION, SYMPTOMS, AND TREATMENT

Understanding Hypertension – Hypertension known as high blood is a condition in which the measured systolic blood pressure is ≥140mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg.

Based on the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC 7), hypertension classification-based on the measurement of systolic and diastolic blood pressure- for ages ≥18 years is as follows:

  1. Normal: systolic <120 mmHg, diastolic <80 mmHg
  2. Prehypertension: systolic 120-139 mmHg, diastolic 80-89 mmHg
  3. Hypertension stage 1: systolic 140 up to 159 mmHg, diastolic 90 to 99 mmHg
  4. Hypertension stage 2: systolic ≥160 mmHg, diastolic ≥100 mmHg

hypertension check

Diagnosis of Hypertension

The doctor will diagnose a person suffering from hypertension based on a clinical examination performed, i.e., by measuring blood pressure. Also, the doctor will also ask about previous medical history, to find out if there are other cardiovascular diseases. If necessary, the doctor will perform additional checks such as blood tests, urine examination, renal function examination or electrocardiogram examination.

Hypertension risk factors

Some hypertension risk factors, namely:

  • Age. The higher the risk when someone is in the middle age around the age of 45 years.
  • The family history of hypertension.
  • Excess weight (overweight or obese). The greater the weight of a person’s body the greater the body’s need to meet the supply of oxygen and nutrients throughout the network. The increased blood circulation, the greater the pressure on the arterial wall.
  • Not physically active. People who are inactive are more likely to have a higher heart rate. The higher the heart rate, the harder the heart has to work-it contracts causing thickening of the artery walls. Lack of physical activity also increases the risk of being overweight.
  • Smoke
  • Excessive consumption of sodium
  • Less potassium consumption. The importance of potassium in the body to help balance the amount of sodium. If you consume less potassium, the amount of sodium can increase in the blood.
  • Consume alcohol
  • Stress
  • Chronic conditions that accompany the onset of this disease, such as kidney disorders, diabetes, sleep apnea.

Although hypertension generally occurs in adults, children are also not free from the risk of this disease. Adults today, modern diet and lifestyle play a major role in hypertension risk factors; some of them like a diet that is wrong / not healthy, obesity and also lack of physical activity.

hypertension

Symptoms of Hypertension

A person suffering from hypertension may not necessarily show certain symptoms such as when exposed to other diseases. This is what causes hypertension also known as the nickname “the silent killer.”

Hypertension The Silent Killer

Treatment of Hypertension

Lifestyle changes applying a healthy lifestyle can be a solution to controlling hypertension is the first thing you can apply to handle hypertension. Doctors will usually suggest applying a low-salt diet to reduce salt intake, exercise routine, quit smoking and alcohol consumption, and weight control.

However, sometimes applying a healthy lifestyle is not enough; so it’s possible that your doctor will recommend some medications to control your blood pressure. Drugs for controlling hypertension consist of several classes, ranging from diuretic, beta-blocker, Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers (ARBs), to calcium channel blockers.

Generally, the goal of treatment of hypertension is as follows:

  • Achieve blood pressure of less than 150/90 mmHg (if healthy adult, 60 years of age or older)
  • Blood pressure less than 140/90 mmHg (if adultly is under 60 years old)
  • Achieve blood pressure of less than 140/90 mmHg (if you have a history of chronic renal impairment, diabetes, and/or other cardiovascular disorders).

Cause of Hypertension

Hypertension is classified into two, namely primary hypertension and secondary hypertension. Primary hypertension usually occurs due to genetic and lifestyle. Secondary hypertension usually occurs due to several causes such as kidney disorders, thyroid gland disorders, using illegal drugs (cocaine, amphetamines), consuming alcohol for a very long time. Generally, 90% -95% of cases of hypertension fall into the primary hypertension group.

Complications of Hypertension

Uncontrolled hypertension can cause some congenital or hereditary diseases, some of which are:

  • Heart attack or stroke. Hypertension can cause atherosclerosis where this condition can lead to heart attack, stroke, or other cardiovascular complications.
  • Heart failure. To pump blood in a state of hypertension, the heart muscle may be thickened so that the muscle may have difficulty in pumping enough blood to meet the body’s needs-which can lead to heart failure.
  • Impaired/damaged blood vessels in the kidneys.
  • Impaired/damaged blood vessels in the area around the eye.This can lead to loss of vision.
  • Metabolic syndrome.
  • The ability to remember is reduced.

Complication of hypertension

Well, that’s all the hypertension sundries you should know. Maybe useful!

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