HEPATITIS B DISEASE DEFINITION, PREVENTION, AND TREATMENT

HEPATITIS B DISEASE DEFINITION, PREVENTION, AND TREATMENT

Understanding Hepatitis B Disease – Hepatitis B or liver infection is a hepatitis B virus (VHB) infection of the liver. This virus can cause inflammation and trigger the emergence of various symptoms of other diseases. The infection can be acute or chronic.

Sometimes hepatitis B is difficult to recognize because the symptoms are not always immediately apparent. The incubation period of this viral cause of infection ranges from 45-180 days. However, usually, this incubation period also depends on the amount of virus that enters the body, the mode of transmission, and endurance of the sufferer.

Acute hepatitis B generally heals, only 10% becomes chronic hepatitis B (chronic) and may progress to cirrhosis of the liver or liver cancer. Currently, several treatments can be done to increase the chance for a person with this disease. Treatment is available in the form of antivirals such as lamivudine and adefovir and immune system modulators such as interferon alfa.

Hepatitis B

Complications: 

When allowed, hepatitis B can cause complications in the form:

  • Failed
  • Cirrhosis
  • Heart cancer

Diagnosis of Hepatitis B Disease

To determine the diagnosis of hepatitis B or liver infection can be made through a series of medical interviews and physical examination. Also doctors usually also perform investigations, such as laboratory tests.

In the chronic phase, the doctor will perform a more in-depth examination. For example, by examining serum Hepatitis B DNA, increased liver function, HBeAg examination, and liver biopsy.

Symptoms of Illness Hepatitis B

Symptoms of hepatitis B or liver infections that can be found include: –    In acute hepatitis B, symptoms that often appear are nausea, vomiting, weakness, joint pain, cough, and colds. It is also usually accompanied by yellow symptoms (especially on the skin and eyes). On physical examination can be found the enlargement of liver and spleen.-    In the acute phase that improves, the symptoms will decrease. However, the enlarged liver can still be found. It also can be found the existence of antibodies through laboratory examination. –    In chronic hepatitis B, signs that usually appear are acute and unresolvable symptoms of acute hepatitis. This chronic hepatitis B symptom can also be accompanied by signs of liver failure.

The signs are fever, severe pain in the stomach, nausea, and vomiting. Also, from laboratory tests will also see signs of liver failure.

Hepatitis B

Treatment of Disease Hepatitis B

Treatment of hepatitis B or liver infection can be adapted to the disease phase, such as: –    Acute phase. Treatment is supportive. The sufferer can rest at home and keep the intake of nutrients and fluids. In advanced cases of hepatitis B may be given certain drugs for 3 months. –    Chronic phase. The goal of therapy is to suppress and stimulate the immune system. However, supportive treatment is also possible. Treatment usually lasts a lifetime. Unfortunately, hepatitis B drugs are still expensive. However, currently, several alternative therapies use cheaper drug ingredients.

Cause of Disease Hepatitis B

The cause of hepatitis B or liver infection is hepatitis B virus. This infection is differentiated into acute and chronic.

In general, hepatitis B can heal spontaneously and form antibodies naturally. However, infections that occur at birth can have a risk of up to 90 percent of chronic hepatitis B in the future.

There are several ways of transmission of hepatitis B, namely: 

1. Intimate connection ‘unsafe.’

Having sex in an unsafe way is a major cause of hepatitis B transmission. Because hepatitis B virus can enter the body through fine scratches (small wound) on the rectal membrane, vagina, urethra (the channel that carries urine out of the body), reproduction or mouth when performing sexual activity. As mentioned earlier, the virus that causes hepatitis B can be transmitted through semen and vaginal fluids.

2. Use of Alternate Syringes

The use of a syringe, in turn, may be a cause of hepatitis B virus transmission. It usually occurs in drug users of heroin type who use needles as a medium to insert these addictive substances into the body. As we know that the virus that causes hepatitis B can spread through the blood, therefore the use of syringes that have been contaminated by the virus can be a source of transmission.

3. Work

Jobs that often handle human blood, such as health workers, labors, can be at risk of contracting hepatitis B disease. This is because they are exposed to lots of blood or medical devices that may be contaminated.

4. Childbirth

Newborns may be infected with hepatitis B virus from their mother. This is because, during labor, the baby comes into contact with the mother’s body fluid in the birth canal. However, the mother should still breastfeed her baby. Not to worry, breastfeeding can not cause mother-to-child transmission of the virus.

5. Piercing and Tattoos

Piercing and tattooing can be a cause of hepatitis B. It can happen because the spread of the virus through a needle used for piercing or tattoo is not sterile. In other words, the needle used has been contaminated, since it has previously been used by someone who has hepatitis B virus.

6. Bathroom Equipment

Bath appliances such as toothbrushes and razors used together or alternatively by some people can cause the transmission of hepatitis B virus. It can happen if a person with hepatitis B disease brushed his teeth and accidentally injured his gums and bleeds, then brush his teeth the same is used by others, then the person can be infected with hepatitis B disease. Therefore, try not to borrow bath equipment because it can be fatal to your health.

7. Blood Transfusion

Blood transfusion is also one way of transmission of the virus that causes hepatitis B. It can happen if someone gets a blood transfusion from patients with hepatitis B. However, you do not need to worry because there is usually a blood screening process first before being distributed to Blood Bank.

8. Organ Transplant

Similarly, blood transfusion, organ transplants can also transmit hepatitis B disease, if sourced from a sufferer. Therefore, the organs to be transplanted also must go through the screening process first.

Hepatitis B

Prevention of Disease Hepatitis B

Prevention of hepatitis B transmission or liver infection to others can be done by: –    Use condoms during sex with a partner-    Tell your partner to do a hepatitis test-    Do not share a syringe, shaver, or toothbrush

Provision of complete immunization in people with hepatitis B can prevent VHB infection for 15 years. Hepatitis B immunization is done as much as 3 times, the first and second immunization is given within 1 month. While the third immunization is given 6 months after the second immunization. We recommend the provision of hepatitis B immunization is made as early as possible when the baby was born and after a few days given the vaccine or immunization before coming home from maternity.