DIABETES MELLITUS TYPE 2 DISEASE DEFINITION, PREVENTION, AND TREATMENT

DIABETES MELLITUS TYPE 2 DISEASE DEFINITION, PREVENTION, AND TREATMENT

Understanding Diabetes mellitus type 2 Disease – Type 2 diabetes is the most common type of diabetes, reaching 90% of all diabetes cases worldwide. Unlike type 1 diabetes, people with type 2 diabetes continue to produce insulin.

Type 2 diabetes is more common in adulthood and is often associated with an unhealthy lifestyle. That’s because the risk of diabetes is very high occurs in people who have excessive weight, obesity, poor diet, and not physically active.

Over time, high blood sugar (glucose) can lead to dehydration, weight loss, and nerve damage, leading to serious complications such as kidney failure, heart disease, eye damage, severe infection (especially in the legs), and so on. Etc.

type diabetes 2
Risk factors for type 2 diabetes include:

  • Family history of type 2 diabetes in first-degree families (parents, children, siblings) or both (uncles, aunts, grandparents, grandchildren, nieces)
  • Older age
  • Abdominal obesity
  • History of gestational diabetes
  • The presence of hypertension and high cholesterol
  • Race and Ethnicity: African-Americans, Latinos, Native American / Alaskan Natives, as well as Asian and Pacific Islanders, are at greater risk.

Diagnosis of Diabetes mellitus type 2 Disease

  • Beginning with a medical history and physical examination.
  • Blood glucose testing will be performed. Tests can be performed either randomly, fasting, or as part of a glucose tolerance test, which measures blood glucose after the patient swallows a sugar test syrup.
  • In patients with diabetes, blood tests for hemoglobin A1c levels can be used to follow the adequacy of blood sugar control. This provides a fairly accurate measurement of average blood sugar for the previous two to three months. The risk of complications is lower in patients who maintain lower A1c values.
  • Screening for gestational diabetes is a routine part of the prenatal examination. Screening usually occurs between 24 and 28 weeks of pregnancy and involves the same blood sugar test as with other types of diabetes.

Type 2 diabetes complications

In the long run, diabetes can cause serious health problems. Complications due to diabetes include:

  • Heart disease and stroke
  • Diabetic retinopathy, eye damage
  • Hypertension
  • Kidney disease, kidney failure
  • Nerve damage
  • Severe infections, especially in the feet and gums
  • Sexual disorders
  • A very long wound healed

Symptoms of Illness Diabetes mellitus type 2

In type 2 diabetes, the symptoms can be very mild or even show no symptoms at all. That’s because symptoms develop slowly. This causes the majority of people unaware that they have diabetes.

Symptoms of diabetes arise because of high blood sugar, caused by lack of insulin or because of insulin resistance.

Common symptoms of diabetes are:

  • Frequent urination
  • Often feel thirsty
  • Often feeling hungry, even after eating
  • Dehydration
  • Dry mouth
  • Fatigue
  • Wounds are slowly healed, although only a scar

Immediately consult a physician if the above symptoms appear because detecting diabetes and early treatment is very important to prevent various complications that can be caused by high blood sugar conditions.

Many people are newly diagnosed with diabetes after being taken to hospital due to severe complications or coma due to diabetes.

Treatment of Disease Diabetes mellitus type 2

Diabetes is a chronic condition and can not be cured. Treatment of diabetes always focuses on keeping blood sugar levels (glucose) at a normal level, whose primary goal is to avoid the risk of serious complications from diabetes.

The process is usually done by adopting a healthy lifestyle and well planned, by the conditions of diabetes patients concerned.

Healthy lifestyle in question can be a proper diet/diet and regular exercise. Those are the two main elements that should be taken care of by diabetics. Proper diet is very important to maintain blood sugar levels.

Regular exercise will increase the body’s metabolism, able to keep blood sugar remain normal, as well as help increase the sensitivity of body cells to insulin.

Because of its chronic nature, in the end, people with type 2 diabetes may have to take drugs, usually tablets, which works to increase insulin production and also lower blood sugar levels. Insulin injection is also sometimes needed.

Diabetics, both type 1 and type 2, should check blood glucose levels regularly. Always consult a physician to plan the right lifestyle according to each condition.

Many diabetics can remain normal and long life by adopting the right healthy lifestyle.

diabetes steps
Cause of Disease Diabetes mellitus type 2

Type 2 diabetes occurs because of inadequate insulin production, or because the body does not normally react to the hormone insulin. Both of these cause glucose to stay in the bloodstream and not be used as energy for the body’s cells.

Initially, the pancreas will produce more insulin to channel energy to the cells of the ‘starved’ body. But finally, because the hormone insulin is no longer sufficient or no longer effective, then the blood sugar will accumulate.

Over time, high blood sugar levels lead to the emergence of symptoms of diabetes and the risk of complications.

Type 2 diabetes is also more likely to occur in people who are overweight, less physically active, and poor diet. In general, an unhealthy lifestyle becomes a high-risk factor for a person with type 2 diabetes.

Prevention of Disease Diabetes mellitus type 2
Although type 2 diabetes there is a strong genetic, unhealthy diet and lifestyle greatly affects the possibility of the disease will arise.The risks of type 2 and gestational diabetes can be reduced by maintaining a healthy weight and a healthy diet.
This result may be due to several factors. Poor insulin production, gestational diabetes, and type 2 diabetes. Conversely, high intake of dietary fiber, especially in the form of fruits and vegetables, causes lower blood sugar levels after meals. Also, high-fiber diets often contain important micronutrients in blood sugar regulation, including magnesium and vitamin E.
The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) shows that dietary changes designed to reduce weight, combined with regular exercise, can significantly reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes. In particular, the risk is reduced by nearly 60 percent in the group combining diet and exercise, compared with their 30 percent decrease with drug therapy. In individuals with over 60 years of age, the risk is reduced by more than 70 percent with diet and exercise, whereas drug therapy is not effective for people older than 45 years.