Understanding Diabetes mellitus type 1 Disease – Diabetes mellitus type 1 is the most severe form of diabetes. This is because type 1 diabetes mellitus causes beta cells in pancreatic organs destroyed by the autoimmune process. As a result, the body can not produce the hormone insulin, which served to help process glucose (sugar) as energy.

If the need for insulin is not enough, the sugar that enters the body cannot be absorbed completely, thus accumulating in the blood. This condition causes high blood sugar levels, resulting in many short-term and long-term complications.
Type 1 diabetes is also known by other terms, namely insulin-dependent diabetes and juvenile diabetes.

Insulin-dependent diabetes is an expression to describe the condition of patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus, which is highly dependent on insulin.

While juvenile diabetes is an expression which means that type 1 diabetes is a common disease in children aged 4-7 years, and adolescents aged 10-14 years, although not close the possibility to occur at any age.

Genetic or hereditary factors are a known trigger factor for type 1 diabetes. If any family member has type 1 diabetes, then your risk or other family members to get the disease increases.

Risk factors for type 1 diabetes include:

  • Family history: When a relative (parent, child, sibling) has diabetes, the risk of developing type 1 diabetes is about 10 to 15 percent. – Many possible genes are being investigated.
  • Exposure to cow’s milk protein: Consumption of cow’s milk in early childhood has been investigated as a contributing factor.
  • Viral infection of the fetus or childhood
  • Birth weight is greater than 4.49 kg
  • Preeclampsia (high blood pressure in pregnant women)
  • Born by a mother older than 25 years old

Diabetes Mellitus type 1

Diagnosis of Diabetes mellitus type 1 Disease

Diagnosis of type 1 diabetes is established by examining the blood glucose level at the time, fasting blood glucose, or blood glucose 3 during the last month (HbA1c).

Once the diabetes is diagnosed, the patient then performs auto-antibody and urine ketone checks to confirm the type of diabetes, whether type 1 diabetes or type 2 diabetes.

Symptoms of Illness Diabetes mellitus type 1

Symptoms of type 1 diabetes may appear suddenly, such as:

  • Excessive thirst
  • Frequent urination
  • Bedwetting, although previously had not wet the bed
  • Very hungry
  • Weight loss is not intentional
  • Easily angry, and mood swings
  • Weak and tired easily
  • Blurry vision

In the case of type 1 diabetes is not controlled in the long term, patients will experience complications in the form:

  • Diabetic retinopathy, or impairment of the retina of the eye.
  • Neuropathy, or neurological disorders.
  • Poor blood circulation.
  • Nephropathy, which is the cause of kidney failure and heart disease.
  • Coma, until death.

Treatment of Disease Diabetes mellitus type 1

Type 1 diabetes cannot be cured but can be controlled by insulin injections, apply 3J (Schedule, Amount, Type) to everyday diet, and exercise regularly. The purpose of this action is to control blood sugar and prevent complications from type 1 diabetes.

Patients are also advised to periodically check blood glucose levels, either using a method of checking blood glucose levels, fasting blood glucose levels, or blood glucose 3 during the last month (HbA1c).

Cause of Disease Diabetes mellitus type 1

The process of destruction of beta cells in the pancreas is an auto-immune disorder, in which the immune system actually attacks and damages healthy body cells in the body.

The cause is not known for certain, but experts think that environmental factors (e.g., virus) trigger this disorder, in addition to genetic factors/heredity.

A body that can not produce insulin causes glucose in the blood cannot be channeled to other body cells so that the body’s cells do not get the energy to perform its functions.

Without insulin, there is a buildup of excessive glucose in the blood and cause the condition of diabetes.

diabetes type 1
Prevention of Disease Diabetes mellitus type 1

Food factors that may affect the risk of type 1 diabetes have been investigated. The following considerations are important for prevention strategies:

  • Breastfeeding: In some epidemiological studies, breastfeeding is associated with a reduced risk of developing type 1 diabetes. Longer duration of breastfeeding may be the key to reducing risk, possibly by increasing protection against infection, improving the baby’s immune response, and delaying exposure to foreign food allergens.
  • Avoid early introduction of cow’s milk: Cow’s milk has been linked to the diagnosis of diabetes, and children with type 1 diabetes have been found to have higher levels of antibodies to certain proteins contained in cow’s milk. Although it has not been proven conclusively that cow’s milk is a trigger for type 1 diabetes, the American Academy of Pediatrics concludes that avoiding early exposure to cow’s milk may reduce risk.
  • Avoid early introduction of gluten-containing foods: A prevalence of celiac disease has been observed in children with type 1 diabetes, compared with other children. In epidemiological studies, supplementing infant diets with foods containing gluten (e.g., wheat, barley, and rye) before the age of three months was associated with an increased risk for developing typical antibodies of diabetes. In some children, early recognition (before three months) and late (after seven months) of cereals are associated with increased risk.