Understanding Diabetes Disease – Diabetes (diabetes mellitus) is a metabolic disease caused by increased levels of glucose or blood sugar. Blood sugar is vital for health because it is an important source of energy for cells and tissues.

The disease is divided into several types, namely:

  • Type 1 diabetes, in which the immune system attacks and destroys the beta cells in the pancreas that produce insulin.
  • Type 2 diabetes, in which the beta cells in the pancreas do not produce sufficient amounts of insulin, or body cells show no response to the insulin produced.
  • Gestational diabetes, diabetes that occurs during pregnancy.
  • Other types of diabetes, which can arise from hormonal, immunological, infection, or other genetic disorders.

If not properly maintained, diabetes can cause various complications, such as coronary heart disease, stroke, obesity, and disorders of the eyes, kidneys, and nerves.

Also, diabetes can also cause fluctuations in blood sugar levels in the body. This can lead to a decrease (hypoglycemia) or a sudden increase in blood sugar (hyperglycemia).

diabetes diagnosis

Diagnosis of Diabetes Disease

Diagnosis of diabetes can be established from blood sugar levels. A person can be said to have diabetes if:

  • There is a fasting blood sugar level of more than 126 mg / dL, where fasting is a condition of absence of caloric intake for at least 8 hours before the examination.
  • There is a blood sugar level of more than 200 mg / dL after an oral glucose tolerance test (TTGO), in which a person gets a sugar intake with a glucose load of 75 grams.
  • There is a blood glucose level greater than 200 mg / dL accompanied by classic diabetes complaints.

Also, in someone who has been diagnosed with diabetes, can be checked HbA1c levels at least every three months if not yet reached the target of blood sugar and every 6 months for those with stable blood sugar levels.

Symptoms of Illness Diabetes

Prediabetes or type 2 diabetes usually does not show symptoms initially. Meanwhile, in type 1 diabetes, symptoms can develop rapidly.

Some signs and symptoms of type 1 and type 2 diabetes are:

  • Increased thirst
  • Frequent urination
  • Extreme hunger
  • Weight loss without cause
  • Fatigue
  • Blurry vision
  • Long wound healed
  • Often have infections, such as the gums, skin, vagina

Type 1 diabetes can develop at any age, usually appearing during childhood or adolescence. A more common type 2-type diabetes can occur at any age, though more often in people over 40 years of age.

Treatment of Disease Diabetes

In the treatment of diabetes, health experts use the term “5 Pillars” which includes:

  • Education
    The education includes providing information on lifestyle changes that can be done. This is so that people with diabetes feel motivated and get information about healthy behavior.
    Such information includes independent blood sugar monitoring, signs and symptoms of complications that may arise, and how to overcome them.
  • Diet setting
    This therapy can be adjusted for every diabetic, after each requirement. However, things that need to be emphasized are the importance of regularity in the diet including meal schedule, type of food, and the amount.
    When diabetics consult a physician, it can also be calculated ideal body weight, recommended a daily caloric intake, and the proportion of fat, protein, and carbohydrates that can be consumed.
  • Sports
    Diabetics are recommended to exercise regularly, at least 3-4 times a week for at least 30 minutes.
    In addition to maintaining health, exercise can also help you lose weight and improve insulin sensitivity, thus improving blood glucose control.
    The types of exercise suggested are aerobic activities such as walking, cycling, running, or swimming.
  • Drugs
    The administration of drugs in diabetics may include oral or injectable drugs. For type 1 diabetes, treatment may be insulin given by injection.
    For type 2 diabetes, there are several classes of oral medication that can be given as indicated by the doctor. However, in certain cases, injection insulin can also be given for type 2 diabetes.
  • Monitoring blood sugar independently
    Currently, there are plenty of easy-to-use blood glucose gauges. The results obtained are generally reliable when calibration of the apparatus is performed well, and the inspection is carried out in the recommended manner.
    The recommended time for independent blood sugar monitoring is shortly before meals, 2 hours after meals, at bedtime, or when experiencing certain symptoms.

diabetes treatmen

Cause of Disease Diabetes

Several factors cause diabetes mellitus in general:

1. Genetic Factors
The cause of diabetes that can occur one of this is due to the presence of his genetic factors. Because of having a family who also suffer from diabetes than from having a high probability to suffer from diabetes. Therefore if you have a history of diabetes, then it is also possible to suffer from diabetes if not maintain health and blood sugar levels.

2. Weight Factor (Obesity)
Weight can indeed affect health because even weight can be a disease, and diabetes can occur due to weight. Having a large or excessive weight can suffer from diabetes one of them. Therefore the cause of diabetes can be caused by weight.

3. Food Factors
The cause of diabetes can occur from food consumed if often consume unhealthy foods such as foods that contain high fat or even have a sweet content of sugar that much then it can be a cause of diabetes. Therefore keep a good food intake so as not to experience a rise in blood sugar levels.

4. Smoking Factor
Cigarettes are a source of disease, and cigarettes can be a cause of diabetes as well therefore why the use of cigarettes is banned and not good for use.

Prevention of Disease Diabetes

It is important to do diabetes prevention if you have diabetes risk factors. For example, if you are overweight or have a family with a history of diabetes.

To avoid diabetes, applying a healthy lifestyle is the key. Eat healthy and balanced nutritious foods, exercise regularly, and keep the weight ideal.