CERVICAL CANCER DISEASE DEFINITION, PREVENTION, AND TREATMENT

CERVICAL CANCER DISEASE DEFINITION, PREVENTION, AND TREATMENT

Understanding Cervical Cancer Disease – Cervical cancer or cervical cancer, a type of cancer that occurs in the neck or cervix, which is the border between the vagina and uterus in the female reproductive system.
Most cases of cervical cancer are caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) that can be transmitted through sexual contact.

Diagnosis of Cervical Cancer Disease

If on the screening of the cervix (Pap smear) found abnormal or suspicious results, obstetricians and midwifery will encourage a woman to perform colposcopy examination. This examination is done to see the abnormalities in the cervix.
When done a colposcopy, a small microscope with a light source will be used to see the cervical region more clearly. Also, a biopsy may also be performed. This action is done by taking tissue samples from the cervix for further examination under the microscope to observe the presence or absence of cancer cells.
If the biopsy results suggest the presence of a malignancy and the possibility of spreading, then some other tests will also usually be done. These include blood tests for liver and kidney conditions, computerized tomography (CT) – scan, magnetic resonance imaging, chest x-ray examination, and other types of checks to check the patient’s overall condition.
 cervical cancer stages

Symptoms of Illness Cervical Cancer

Unfortunately, cervical cancer often does not show significant symptoms until it reaches an advanced stage. In some cases, there may be abnormal bleeding or vaginal discharge from the vagina. This condition is one of the symptoms that should be examined further. Similarly, when a woman often experiences bleeding during sexual intercourse.
Bleeding outside the menstrual cycle can be categorized as abnormal bleeding, including here also bleeding after menopause. Therefore, consult your doctor immediately if you have abnormal bleeding.
Other symptoms that may be experienced by someone with cervical cancer is a very pain and discomfort during intercourse, especially accompanied by the release of fluid from the vagina that smelled sharp.
Beware of cervical cancer at an advanced stage that has spread to the surrounding tissue. This condition can lead to several other complaints, including constipation, the presence of blood in the urine, loss of bladder control (incontinence or inability to resist urination), bone pain, swelling of the feet, low back pain, decreased appetite, weight loss, and excessive fatigue.

Treatment of Disease Cervical Cancer

Treatment of cervical cancer is always done based on the stage of cancer and the condition of each patient. Because cancer treatment is complex, hospitals generally use multidisciplinary teams to treat cervical cancer.
In most cases of early-stage cervical cancer, treatment generally includes surgery to remove part or all of the uterus, radiotherapy, or a combination of the two. While in the case of the advanced cervix stage, generally done radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy, although surgery is sometimes also done.
The overall possibility of cure is relatively good when cervical cancer is detected at an early stage. The earlier detected, the higher one’s healing rate.

Cause of Disease Cervical Cancer

In general, cervical cancer is caused by HPV virus (human papillomavirus). There are more than 100 different types of HPV viruses. Unfortunately, when infected with the virus, most types of virus that do not cause significant symptoms.
However, some types of HPV are known to cause changes in cervical cells that culminate in the occurrence of cervical cancer. Two types of HPV, HPV 16 and HPV 18, are now known to account for 70% of cases of cervical cancer. However, the infection of this virus is often not showing symptoms.
There are several risk factors associated with cervical cancer, namely:
  • A higher number of sexual partners will cause the risk of exposure to HPV to be higher.
  • Having sex at too young. Starting sexual intercourse at an early age also increases a person’s risk of exposure to HPV.
  • The presence of other sexually transmitted infections. People who have a history of other sexually transmitted infections, including chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, or HIV / AIDS, are at higher risk for HPV infection.
  • A weak immune system. A person with a weak immune system due to health conditions are disrupted will be more at risk of cervical cancer.
  • Smoke. Those who smoke are known to have a higher risk of developing squamous cell cervical cancer.
 Cervical Cancer

Prevention of Disease Cervical Cancer

There are several suggestions to reduce the risk of cervical cancer. Here are some tips you can do to prevent cervical cancer:
  • One way to reduce the risk of cervical cancer is to practice safe sexual relations, given the HPV virus is known to spread through sexual contact. Vaccination for cervical cancer is also now possible to protect against HPV infection.
Vaccines are intended to provide protection against HPV attacks, including two types known to be associated with about 70% of cervical cancers, HPV 16 and HPV 18.
  • Regular screening or cervical examination is the best way to identify abnormal changes in cervical cells in the early phase.
Any woman who has been, ever, and is still sexually active is advised to schedule regular cutaneous pap smear examinations once a year.