BLADDER STONE DISEASE DEFINITION, PREVENTION, AND TREATMENT

BLADDER STONE DISEASE DEFINITION, PREVENTION, AND TREATMENT

Understanding Bladder Stone DiseaseBladder stones are stones consisting of minerals, which are found in the bladder. The bladder itself is a shelter for urine or urine before removal from the body through the urethral tract.

BLADDER STONE

Diagnosis of Bladder Stone Disease

To determine the diagnosis of the abutting bladder can be examined urine analysis. The presence of bladder stones can provide positive results for examination of nitrite, leukocyte esterase, and blood.

Also, blood tests to evaluate kidney function and increased leukocytes (white blood cells) in cases of blockage due to stones and infection.

The radiological examination also greatly helps the diagnosis of bladder stones. The standard gold examination suggested by the American Urological Association is a contactless CT scan for abdominal and pelvic areas. If this check is not available, X-ray KUB (Kidney, Ureter, Bladder) may be examined.

In pregnant women, the recommended examination is ultrasound.

Symptoms of Illness Bladder Stone

Symptoms that can be caused by bladder stones are quite diverse, such as:

  • lower abdominal pain can also be felt in the genitals
  • pain or difficulty during urination
  • frequent urination, especially at night
  • difficulty starting micturition
  • urine emissions that stop and reappear when urinating
  • cloudy or dark urine
  • presence of blood in the urine

In some people, it may not feel any symptoms.

Treatment of Disease Bladder Stone

For handling bladder stones, two types of treatment can be done, namely:

1. Pharmacological

  • Drug administration (potassium citrate) aims to make urine more alkaline to dissolve acidic stones (used in cases of uric acid stones)
  • urine pH target is 6.5 or more, but keep in mind there is a risk of depositing calcium phosphate on the stone surface making it ineffective

2. Surgery
Several surgical approaches can be considered for handling bladder stones. The use of endoscopy aims to destroy the stone becomes smaller so it can come out through the urinary tract.
However, in cases of stones that are too large, too hard, or small urinary tract (e.g., in children), generally open surgery is more advisable to do.

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Cause of Disease Bladder Stone

Bladder stones are caused by poor bladder emptying, so urine remains in the bladder. As a result minerals in the urine (especially concentrated urine) can stick together and harden to form crystals and eventually rocks.

Some medical conditions increase the risk factors for bladder formation, such as:

  • Enlarged prostate
  • Neurogenic bladder (nerve damage that causes poor bladder emptying)
  • Cystocele (weakness of the bladder wall that causes the bladder ‘to fall’ into the vagina)
  • Bladder diverticula (the formation of a ‘sac’ on the bladder wall)
  • Diet (high-fat diet, sugar, and salt are also low in vitamins A and B)
  • Lack of drinking (causing urine concentrated)

Prevention of Disease Bladder Stone

The formation of bladder stones can be prevented by several actions, including:

  • handling of medical conditions that increase the risk factor of bladder formation
  • increase fluid intake to reduce urine concentration
  • urinate regularly, do not hold BAK
  • if urination is not complete, do not hesitate to go back to try to urinate 10-20 seconds after the first attempt to urinate
  • avoid constipation

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